Your teeth are held in place by roots that extend into your jawbone. Front teeth usually have one root. Other teeth, such as your premolars and molars, have two or more than one root. The tip or end of each root is called the apex. The apex is where your nerves and blood vessels enter the tooth. The nerves and blood vessels travels through a canal inside the root, and into the pulp chamber. This chamber is inside the crown (the portion of your tooth that is above the gum line).
During root canal treatment, the dentist cleans the canals using special instruments. A root canal is done when patients have an Inflamed or infected tissue to be removed. An apicoectomy may be needed when an infection develops or won’t go away after root canal treatment or retreatment.
Root canals can be very complex, so even after root canal treatment, infected tissue can remain in the canals. If it becomes infected again, it’s often because of a problem near the apex of the root. This can possibly prevent healing or cause re-infection at a later time. In an apicoectomy, the root tip (apex) is removed along with the infected tissue. A filling is then placed to seal the end of the root.
An apicoectomy is done only after a tooth has had at least one root canal procedure and retreatment has not been successful or is not possible.
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